## Algebra II essential standards

**Algebra II Essential Standards**

The High School Algebra II standards presented in various courses provide a detailed study of advanced algebra, probability and statistics, and introductory trigonometry topics outlined in the Common Core Learning Standards. Topics include a deep expansion of the following: composition of functions, transformations, complex numbers, sampling and sampling distributions, the normal model, advanced probability, and trigonometric functions. Students will expand upon their understanding of arithmetic and geometric sequences and relate this knowledge to series, both finite and infinite. The sequencing of the the High School Algebra II standards are presented within different courses/grades amongst the three levels (Modified, Regular, and Honors), allowing students to take a developmentally appropriate, differentiated approach to the discovery of the topics outlined below, but at their core all approaches will be founded on the following essential standards:

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**Numbers & Quantity**

**N-Q.1.**Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.**N-CN.1**. Know there is a complex number*i*such that*i*2 = –1, and every complex number has the form*a + bi*with*a*and*b*real.**N-CN.2.**Use the relation*i*2 = –1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers.**N-CN.7.**Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions.

**Algebra**

**A-SSE.2.**Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it.*For example, see x**4**– y**4**as (x**2**)**2**– (y**2**)**2**, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x**2**– y**2**)(x**2**+ y**2**).***A-APR.7.**(+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.**A-CED.2.**Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.**A-REI.2.**Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.**A-REI.4.b.**Solve quadratic equations in one variable: Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for*x*2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as*a*±*bi*for real numbers*a*and*b*.**A-REI.7.**Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line*y*= –3*x*and the circle*x*2 +*y*2 = 3.

**Functions**

**F-IF.1.**Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If*f*is a function and*x*is an element of its domain, then*f*(*x*) denotes the output of*f*corresponding to the input*x*. The graph of*f*is the graph of the equation*y*=*f*(*x*).**F-IF.2.**Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.**F-IF.4.**For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship.*Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity*.**F-BF.1.a.**Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities: Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.**F-BF.3.**Identify the effect on the graph of replacing*f*(*x*) by*f*(*x*) +*k*,*k**f*(*x*),*f*(*kx*), and*f*(*x*+*k*) for specific values of*k*(both positive and negative); find the value of*k*given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.**F-BF.4.a.**Find inverse functions: Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse.*For example, f(x) =2 x**3**or f(x) = (x+1)/(x–1) for x ≠ 1.***F-LE.2.**Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).**F-LE.4.**For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to*ab**ct*=*d*where*a*,*c*, and*d*are numbers and the base*b*is 2, 10, or*e*; evaluate the logarithm using technology.**F-TF.1.**Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle.**F-TF.2.**Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle.**F-TF.3.**(+) Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosines, and tangent for*x*, π +*x*, and 2π –*x*in terms of their values for*x*, where*x*is any real number.**F-TF.5.**Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline.**F-TF.8.**Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2(θ) + cos2(θ) = 1 and use it to find sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) given sin(θ), cos(θ), or tan(θ) and the quadrant of the angle.

**Geometry**

**G-SRT.6.**Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.**G-SRT.8.**Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.**G-GPE.1.**Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.**G-GPE.2.**Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix.**Statistics & Probability****S-ID.4.**Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.**S-IC.1.**Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population.**S-IC.3.**Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.**S-IC.4.**Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.**S-IC.5.**Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.**S-CP.1.**Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”).**S-CP.2.**Understand that two events*A*and*B*are independent if the probability of*A*and*B*occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.**S-CP.3.**Understand the conditional probability of*A*given*B*as*P*(*A*and*B*)/*P*(*B*), and interpret independence of*A*and*B*as saying that the conditional probability of*A*given*B*is the same as the probability of*A*, and the conditional probability of*B*given*A*is the same as the probability of*B*.**S-CP.4.**Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.*For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results.***S-CP.6.**Find the conditional probability of*A*given*B*as the fraction of*B*’s outcomes that also belong to*A*, and interpret the answer in terms of the model.**S-CP.7.**Apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.